Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water...

Water in nature is never really perfect and comes to us with impurities from living organisms, suspended substances, and dissolved gases and solids. All of these can affect the taste and appearance of water, not to mention its degree of both safety and hardness. The reverse osmosis process is the same process that many hospitals throughout the country have used to make certain that their pharmaceutical water is of the highest quality.

Your drinking water comes from two main sources: ground waters (wells and springs), and surface water (lakes, streams, rivers, ponds). Both sources are replenished by rain, which dissolves and carries contaminants into surface and underground aquifiers. Some of these contaminants are dioxin, THM's, arsenic, temik, and others which can be dangerous even when measured in the parts-per-billion range.

Over 40 million Americans need to restrict their intake of salt because of high blood pressure, yet almost every water supply has sodium chloride in it. Nitrates and phosphates from fertilizers enter our water supplies as run-off during rain storms and irrigation. Nitrates over 10 parts-per-million may cause intestinal and stomach cancer.

Industrial wastes containing acids, caustics, hydrocarbons, PCB's, TCE's, lead, mercury, and chromium enter our water supplies from dump sites. Excess amounts in our drinking water can lead to nervous disorders, heart disease, and other medical problems. Waste from private septic systems and public disposal plants can lead to dangerous bacteria levels causing virus and bacteriological diseases. You can't see, smell, or taste most dangerous contaminants in your water supply. Although it may take -15 to 20 years before you develop cancer, heart disease, or nervous disorders, perhaps we should take preventive measures to better protect ourselves.

A home R.O. system can substantially reduce dissolved metals such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, and manganese as well as brackish mineral salts, chlorides, and other tastes. The result is cleaner, healthier drinking water.


Water contains total dissolved solids. TDS is the measurement by weight of dissolved materials in a given volume of water. If a material will completely dissolve and is not visible in the water, it is part of the total dissolved solids. Reverse osmosis helps to lower the TDS content of water (such as brackish water, saline water, or seawater) since substances such as calcium, magnesium, and sodium cannot readily pass through the semi-permeable membrane, while water can. With the assistance of water pressure, impurities are removed and sent down the drain.

R.O. is a membrane process that acts as a molecular filter to remove up to 99% of all dissolved minerals. Water passes through the membrane while the dissolved and particulate materials are left behind. As pressure is applied to the concentrated solution, the flow is reversed and water is forced through the membrane from the concentrated side to the dilute side.

Water molecules penetrate the thin cellulose acetate layer of membrane and diffuse through it molecule by molecule. Dissolved salt ions would also diffuse through this layer, except that the solubility of the salt ions in the acetate is much less than that of the water. Thus, the water moves through more rapidly with the result that a separation occurs. The driving force is furnished by both the pressure and the concentration differentials across the thin layer For water, the pressure effect is the most important, and for dissolved mineral ions the concentration difference is most important. Therefore, increases in pressure increase the water flux without a corresponding increase in salt flux.

This process removes most of the dissolved mineral salts, almost all of the particulate matter, and most of the dissolved organic compounds. With reverse osmosis systems, water pressure must be maintained at 40-70 PSI to keep a driving force across the membrane to produce a high clarity, low mineral content water Most R.O. systems operate in the 75-80% conversion range. This means that at 75% conversion, 100 gallons of feed water will produce 75 gallons of pure water and 25 gallons of brine.

Other methods of water treatment, such as water softening and deionization, are also important and it is a combination of these along with R.O. that will normally produce the highest quality water It should be noted that an R.O. system is not a solution for all water problems and that water must be potable-safe for human consumption-before it is put through an R.O. system.


The central part of the R.O. system is the module, which is a pressurized container housing the semi-permeable membrane. Cellulose Triacetate (CTA) membranes are used for chlorinated supplies. Thin Film Composite (TFC) long-life membranes are used for non-chlorinated water supplies. Here, the feedwater will be separated into usable product, called permeate, and waste product, called concentrate. On either side of the module may be two carbon filters, one which pretreats the feedwater, the other which post-treats the permeate.

The product water may then pass into a diaphragm pressure tank which holds the water until it is taken from the discharge faucet by the user. Countertop units, however, normally omit a pressurized storage tank and discharge directly into a non-pressurized container. Most of these systems have a one to five gallon capacity, usually more than adequate for drinking and cooking purposes. Unlike the larger commercial systems, a pump is not required to provide additional pressure. The home R.O. system operates on line or system pressure. No electricity is needed. Its compactness allows the system to fit easily in a small area, often under the kitchen sink or in a cabinet.

The home low pressure R.O. system is designed for use on a potable drinking water supply. In addition, the water should be clear in appearance, not turbid or cloudy, and without offensive taste. If these conditions have not been met, the water will require treatment before putting it through the R.O. system. Good quality feedwater is essential if the system is to function properly and produce a satisfactory product. This is why the carbon filter system is important; it can treat the feedwater for chlorine removal, as well as reduce suspended solids.

Reasonable care must be taken to prevent damage to the R.O. membrane. Factors which can shorten the life of the membrane include scaling, excessive pressure or temperature, and bacteria and chlorine degradation. By exercising care, avoiding extremes in feedwater impurities, and occasionally cleaning and monitoring the system, these problems may be prevented. However, periodically changing the membrane will be necessary.


To properly size an R.O. system, determine the water temperature and TDS level and mutiply the percent of loss by the gallon rating of the unit.

A sample of the customer's water is a must when sizing the R.O. system. The main water tests that must be considered are:
Iron content of water- both clear and colored
Total hardness content of the water
Total dissolved solids level in ppm
Chlorine level if present
Source: private well or municipal supply; if municipal, is it surface water?
Water pressure available


As you know, there are many different contaminants in water - small and large virus particles, pollen particles, metals, dissolved salts, and many, many others. The home reverse osmosis system will remove most of these particles and significantly reduce TDS levels.

The R.O. system provides protection against chemicals and bacteria that enter water supplies at a cost that can be remarkably low much lower than that of bottled water In the final analysis, there are few residences, small businesses or offices, that could not benefit from the installation of a convenient, economical low pressure R.O. system.

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